Strong December caps off terrific year for markets
Markets experienced solid gains in December, capping off an impressive quarter and year. The S&P 500 returned 3.02 percent, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) gained 1.87 percent, and the Nasdaq Composite rose 3.63 percent. This positive performance led to a quarterly gain of 9.07 percent for the S&P 500, 6.67 percent for the DJIA, and 12.47 percent for the Nasdaq. The annual figures are even more impressive, with the S&P returning 31.49 percent and the DJIA and Nasdaq growing by 25.34 percent and 36.69 percent, respectively.
International markets also had a strong December, quarter, and year. The MSCI EAFE Index gained 3.25 percent for the month, 8.17 percent for the quarter, and 22.01 percent for the year. The MSCI Emerging Markets Index gained 7.53 percent for the month, 11.93 percent for the quarter, and 18.90 percent for the year. From a technical perspective, both the developed and emerging market indices spent November and December comfortably above their 200-day trend lines.
Fixed income had a more challenging month. The 10-year Treasury yield ended November at 1.78 percent and fell to 1.72 percent before finishing December at 1.92 percent. This led the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index to fall by 0.07 percent for the month, though it gained 0.18 percent for the quarter and 8.72 percent for the year.
The Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Corporate High Yield Index returned 2 percent in December, leading to a quarterly gain of 2.61 percent and an annual return of 14.32 percent. High-yield spreads tightened, falling from 5.35 percent in January to 3.60 percent in December.
Economic growth continues
December’s economic updates painted a picture of steady growth. Third-quarter gross domestic product (GDP) showed an annualized growth rate of 2.1 percent, which helped calm concerns of a more serious slowdown for the economy.
Consumer spending continued its pattern of growth in the fourth quarter. The 0.4 percent increase in November’s personal spending marked the ninth straight month of personal spending growth. The three rate cuts from the Federal Reserve (Fed) in 2019 should help spur additional spending growth in the new year.
Rebound in housing marches on
The housing sector has been a bright spot in the current economic expansion. High consumer confidence and lowered mortgage rates have drawn additional home buyers into the market, driving up sales of both existing and new homes.
Figure 1. NAHB Housing Market Index, 1999–Present
Risks continue to shift
Despite the strength in consumer spending, very real risks remain. Business confidence continued to disappoint, and business investment has also been weaker than expected. There is potential for a rebound in 2020, however, given continued progress with the U.S.-China trade talks.
In U.K. news, Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s Conservative party consolidated power in advance of the January 31 deadline for the U.K.’s formal exit from the European Union. The ongoing negotiations on the terms of this exit could lead to volatility for international markets.
In the U.S., the ongoing impeachment proceedings have the potential to create volatility. Previous impeachment proceedings have created short-term market disruptions, so this is certainly something to watch for.
Better year than expected
All things considered, 2019 was a better year for markets and the economy than expected. Strong consumer spending helped power further market gains, even though lowered business investment and confidence remain areas of concern. Continued support from the Fed, along with the anticipated return to earnings growth in 2020, should allow for further market gains.
All information according to Bloomberg, unless stated otherwise.
Disclosure: Certain sections of this commentary contain forward-looking statements based on our reasonable expectations, estimates, projections, and assumptions. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks and uncertainties, which are difficult to predict. Past performance is not indicative of future results. Diversification does not assure a profit or protect against loss in declining markets. All indices are unmanaged and investors cannot invest directly into an index. The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a price-weighted average of 30 actively traded blue-chip stocks. The S&P 500 Index is a broad-based measurement of changes in stock market conditions based on the average performance of 500 widely held common stocks. The Nasdaq Composite Index measures the performance of all issues listed in the Nasdaq Stock Market, except for rights, warrants, units, and convertible debentures. The MSCI EAFE Index is a float-adjusted market capitalization index designed to measure developed market equity performance, excluding the U.S. and Canada. The MSCI Emerging Markets Index is a market capitalization-weighted index composed of companies representative of the market structure of 26 emerging market countries in Europe, Latin America, and the Pacific Basin. It excludes closed markets and those shares in otherwise free markets that are not purchasable by foreigners. The Bloomberg Barclays Aggregate Bond Index is an unmanaged market value-weighted index representing securities that are SEC-registered, taxable, and dollar-denominated. It covers the U.S. investment-grade fixed-rate bond market, with index components for a combination of the Bloomberg Barclays government and corporate securities, mortgage-backed pass-through securities, and asset-backed securities. The Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Corporate High Yield Index covers the USD-denominated, non-investment-grade, fixed-rate, taxable corporate bond market. Securities are classified as high-yield if the middle rating of Moody’s, Fitch, and S&P is Ba1/BB+/BB+ or below.